Planners are aware of these issues. Today, many development problems stem from cultural habits that were OK in the 19th and 20th centuries that are now problematic in the 21st century. I like to eat meat, especially bacon and lamb, but livestock husbandry is one of the worst drivers of land degradation and climate change. I also love to travel, but flying uses a lot of energy: for one person, an intercontinental flight uses energy comparable to the energy spent in a year’s worth of driving.
People often look to emerging technologies to drive cultural change in the 21st century. But it’s a bit like an alcoholic hoping for a liver transplant to address the consequences of their addiction rather than addressing the root causes of their health problems. It’s difficult to change large-scale patterns of human behavior because these patterns emerge from the decisions made by billions of individuals. But if people understand that changes in cultural behavior can lead to healthier lives as well as healthier and more secure societies, maybe civilization has a chance to survive the next 1000 years.